Getting to know PDF 2.0 – update from Down Under

Martin Bailey, CTO, Global Graphics Software

Martin Bailey, CTO, Global Graphics Software

I’ve been in the ISO PDF committee meeting in Sydney, Australia for a couple of days this week to review the comments submitted to the most recent ballot on PDF 2.0. Over 100 comments were received, including some complex issues around digital signatures, structure tagging (especially lists), optional content, document parts and soft masks. In all cases the committee was able to reach a consensus on what should be done for PDF 2.0.

The plan is now for one more ballot, the responses to which will be reviewed in Q2 next year, with an expectation that final text for PDF 2.0 will be delivered to ISO for publication shortly thereafter.

So we’re still on track for publication next year.

All of which means that it’s past time that a couple of PDF’s unsung heroes were acknowledged. The project leaders for PDF 2.0 have invested very substantial amounts of time and mental energy updating text in response to comments and ballots over the last several years. When somebody like me requests a change it’s the project leaders who help to double-check that every last implication of that change is explored to ensure that we don’t have any inconsistency.

So a big thank you to Duff Johnson of the PDF Association and Peter Wyatt of CISRA (Canon)!

It’s also worth noting that one of the significant improvements in PDF 2.0 that probably won’t get highlighted elsewhere is that the text now is much more consistent. When you’re writing a detailed technical document 1000 pages long it’s inevitable that some disconnections between different sections will creep in. PDF 2.0 illustrates the value of a broad group of people from many countries and many industries reviewing text in the ISO process: we’ve managed to stamp on many of those cases in this new version.

Getting to know PDF 2.0: rendering PDF transparency

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In the middle of 2017 ISO 32000-2 will be published, defining PDF 2.0.  It’s eight years since there’s been a revision to the standard. In the second of a series of blog posts Martin Bailey, the primary UK expert to the ISO committee developing PDF 2.0, looks at the changes to rendering PDF transparency for print.
These changes are all driven by what we’ve learned in the last few years about where the previous PDF standards could trip people up in real-world jobs.
Inheritance of transparency color spaces
Under certain circumstances a RIP will now automatically apply a color-managed (CIEBased) color space when a device color space (such as DeviceCMYK) is used in a transparent object. It will do that by inheriting it from a containing Form XObject or the current page.
That sounds very technical, but the bottom line is that it will now be much easier to get the correct color when imposing multiple PDF files from different sources together. That’s especially the case when you’re imposing PDF/X files that use different profiles in their output intents, even though they may all be intended for the same target printing condition. The obvious examples of this kind of use case is placing display advertising for publications, or gang-printing.
We’ve tried hard to minimize impact on existing workflows in making these improvements, but there will inevitably be some cases where a PDF 2.0 workflow will produce different results from at least some existing solutions, and this is one case where that could happen. But we believe that the kinds of construct where PDF 2.0 will produce different output are very uncommon in PDF files apart from in the cases where it will provide a benefit by allowing a much closer color match to the designer/advertiser’s goal than could be achieved easily before.
Clarifications on when object colors must be transformed to the blend color space
The ISO PDF 1.7 standard, and all previous PDF specifications were somewhat vague about exactly when the color space of a graphical object involved with PDF transparency needed to be transformed into the blending color space. The uncertainty meant that implementations from different vendors could (and sometimes did) produce very different results.
Those statements have been greatly clarified in PDF 2.0.
This is another area where an upgrade to a PDF 2.0 workflow may mean that your jobs render slightly differently … but the up-side is that if you run pre-press systems or digital presses from multiple vendors they should now all be more similar to each other.
As a note to Harlequin RIP users, the new rules are in line with the way that Harlequin has always behaved; in other words, you won’t see any changes in this area when you upgrade.
ColorDodge & Burn
It tends to be taken for granted that the older PDF specifications must match what Adobe® Acrobat® does, but that’s not always correct. As an example, the formulae for the ColorDodge and ColorBurn transparency blending modes in the PDF specification have never matched the implementation in Acrobat. In pursuit of compatibility Harlequin was changed to match Acrobat rather than the specification many years ago. In PDF 2.0 the standard is finally catching up with reality and now both Acrobat and Harlequin will be formally ‘correct’!
The background
The last few years have been pretty stable for PDF; PDF 1.7 was published in 2006, and the first ISO PDF standard (ISO 32000-1), published in 2008, was very similar to PDF 1.7. In the same way, PDF/X 4 and PDF/X 5, the most recent PDF/X standards, were both published in 2010, six years ago.
In the middle of 2017 ISO 32000-2 will be published, defining PDF 2.0. Much of the new work in this version is related to tagging for content re-use and accessibility, but there are also several areas that affect print production. Among them are some changes to the rendering of PDF transparency, ways to include additional data about spot colors and about how color management should be applied.

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Getting to know PDF 2.0

Just when you’ve all cozied down with PDF 1.7 what happens?  Yes, that’s right.  A new standard rears its head.

Around the middle of 2017 the ISO committee will publish PDF 2.0 (ISO 32000-2). So by the end of 2017 you’ll probably need to be considering how to ensure that your workflow can handle PDF 2.0 files correctly.

As the primary UK expert to this committee I thought I’d give you a heads up now on what to expect.  And over the coming months via this blog and our newsletter I’ll endeavor to keep you posted on what to look out for as far as print is concerned.  Because, of course, there are many aspects to the standard that do not concern print at all.  For instance there are lots of changes in areas such as structure tagging for accessibility and digital signatures that might be important for business and consumer applications.

As you probably already know, in 2008 Adobe handed over ownership and development of the PDF standard to the International Standards Organization.  Since that time I’ve been working alongside other experts to ensure that standards have real-world applicability.

And here’s one example relating to color.

The printing condition for which a job was created can be encapsulated in professional print production jobs by specifying an “output intent” in the PDF file. The output intent structure was invented for the PDF/X standards, at first in support of pre-flight, and later to enable color management at the print site to match that used in proofing at the design stage.

But the PDF/X standards only allow a single output intent to be specified for all pages in a job.

PDF 2.0 allows separate output intents to be included for every page individually. The goal is to support jobs where different media are used for various pages, e.g. for the first sheet for each recipient of a transactional print job, or for the cover of a saddle-stitched book. The output intents in PDF 2.0 are an extension of those described in PDF/X, and the support for multiple output intents will probably be adopted back into PDF/X-6 and into the next PDF/VT standard.

But of course, like many improvements, this one does demand a little bit of care. A PDF 1.7 or existing PDF/X reader will ignore the new page level output intents and could therefore produce the wrong colors for a job that contains them.
In my next post I’ll be covering changes around live transparency in PDF 2.0.  Bet you can’t wait!
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The background
The last few years have been pretty stable for PDF; PDF 1.7 was published in 2006, and the first ISO PDF standard (ISO 32000-1), published in 2010, was very similar to PDF 1.7. In the same way, PDF/X 4 and PDF/X 5, the most recent PDF/X standards, were both published in 2010, six years ago.

In the middle of 2017 ISO 32000-2 will be published, defining PDF 2.0. Much of the new work in this version is related to tagging for content re-use and accessibility, but there are also several areas that affect print production. Among them are some changes to the rendering of PDF transparency, ways to include additional data about spot colors and about how color management should be applied.

Meet the team behind Fundamentals

Meet Srikrishna Nudurumati, Global Graphics Colour Scientist and a member of our Fundamentals BreakThrough Engineering Services team. Srikrishna is passionate about colour and has many years of experience working in the field. We asked Srikrishna a few questions so you can get to know him better:

Srikrishna Nudurumati

Srikrishna Nudurumati, Colour Scientist at Global Graphics Software

In his own words …

Tell us about your job. What do you do?
Broadly, I am a physicist with specific interest in applications of colour vision & imaging research to software products. In my current role at Global Graphics, as a Colour Scientist, I lead the research & development to ensure best quality reproduction with our products as well as for our customers through our software and engineering services package, Fundamentals.

What is the best thing about your job?
An exceptional aspect about my job in colour imaging is that colour is also my hobby. What more? Time is the only limit. We at Global Graphics, strive continuously, helping our customers to be the first to embrace the latest advancements in the industry. I am glad to be at the forefront, influencing to provide the best to our customers.

Tell us about the path you took to get where you are today
My academic background stems from remote sensing, satellite imaging, digital photogrammetry and colour image processing. I have gained considerable practical knowledge of computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning on the job during my initial assignments as a junior researcher. My IT career path from a software programmer working in medical imaging, to a researcher in colour engineering software was not planned. I strongly believe in Kaizen, even for improving one’s knowledge. During the past twelve years, I have made it a mandatory part of my daily schedule to learn something new and I continue this tradition today.

What is the biggest lesson you’ve learned in your career so far?
I have been a part of the IT industry, as a software design engineer and also briefly in academia as a PhD researcher. I am happy to have learnt numerous invaluable lessons in my career so far already. It is imperative to align one’s interests with the general mission and goals of the organisation one works for. Identifying and being a part of an organisation, which facilitates such an alignment defines the first step to success. I work with an entrepreneurial instinct when it comes to defining, scoping and accomplishing my responsibilities, but with alignment to the organisation’s goals. That said, everyone in an organisation must be an influencer to whatever extent he/she can be.

As a colour expert, what’s the most important aspect of colour in your opinion?
It is an important consideration that we are all different in the way we think of colour and perceive colour. Although colour and vision science establishes these variances to a very large extent, conventional colour engineering has not adopted these quite well. Colour engineering for printing is not based on a single branch of physics, but is a conglomerate of various phenomena, the roots of which lie in different realms of physics. The challenge that a colour scientist tries to address is to make it clear to the end user in an intuitive manner, how each parameter influences the overall quality of reproduction, be it for the display screen for softproofing or a print.

What are the challenges in successful colour engineering for printing?
Colour management workflow for reproduction by printing is much more complex than for colour reproduction on display systems & screens. The physical model of a printing system comprises a colour workflow similar to that of a camera or a display system, but additionally deals with ink-media physical and optical interaction, grey balance, multilevel colourants, screening or halftoning, effects of metamerism and user preferences etc, in the form of inverse models. Added to these are the uncertainties in the reproduction chain. This could be uncertainty in the actual printer gamut, uncertainty in the printer mechanical behaviour in the field, differences in viewing environment etc. It is a challenge to provide the end users a system which makes them oblivious to the intricacies of the underlying mathematical models that transform the colour seamlessly from image capture to printed reproduction. We at Global Graphics provide our customers with a simplified view and controls for colour management, to tune their systems. This lets them focus their efforts in bringing out their creativity without worrying about numerous parameters that they would otherwise have to balance manually.

About Fundamentals

Fundamentals offers inkjet press manufacturers a quicker way to get their presses to market. It is a new concept that combines the software products that are essential to create your Digital Front End with our BreakThrough Engineering Service that helps you overcome the technical hurdles involved in developing a new press.

Fundamentals
offers inkjet press manufacturers a quicker way to get their presses to market. It is a new concept that combines the software products that are essential to create your Digital Front End with our BreakThrough Engineering Service that helps you overcome the technical hurdles involved in developing a new press. Visit http://www.globalgraphics.com/products/fundamentals for more information.

 

What is a successful beta test?

You often read news items about a new press having been installed at a beta site but it’s not a topic that gets much of an airing apart from the odd news bulletin, is it?

And that got me thinking.

What is considered to be a successful beta test?  And why should we care?

Well, if you do care, you are not just going through the motions to get your press out of the door. You are more likely to be focussed on delivering a good product. You probably view beta testing as an opportunity to make changes for the better and to help improve product management. You care what comes back because you want to develop a good product. It’s important to you to get understandable and useful data.

So what do you want to know? Your beta test should provide you with proof points as to why your printer is going to be successful in the market. “Real” users will use and abuse your press and put it through its paces in a way that your own internal hardware and software engineers will not. Any weaknesses will be exposed. And you’ll get closer to your customer by working together with them in a way that just wouldn’t be open to you if you didn’t run a beta program.

The thing is how do you extract meaningful data from your test? And how do you rule out those problems that have nothing to do with your press, such as humidity, ambient temperature, the way the site is being operated?

Somehow you need to control the environment that the beta test is conducted in and approach the beta test in quite a formal way to rule out any subjectivity that might creep in.

We’ve got some ideas on how to achieve this which I’ll share in another post. But I’d be interested in hearing how you do it. What are your top tips?

Fundamentally it’s…

8 Fundamentals _black

It’s been a really interesting week chatting to vendors and the press about our new software and services package for inkjet. In case you missed it, we’ve called it Fundamentals because it combines essential software components and engineering expertise that press vendors need to build a Digital Front End.

What’s the big deal you might say?  Well, The Times They Are A Changing to quote Bob Dylan both in terms of the progression of inkjet technology and the swing towards digital printing in the labels and packaging sector which is where we have focussed our initial offering of Fundamentals.

Thanks to our lengthy graphic arts experience – we’ve been supplying software to drive digital presses since 2002 – we are regularly approached by inkjet press vendors either to intervene at some point in an existing workflow or because they’re starting from a blank sheet of paper and need to figure out how to build a Digital Front End for a new press.

If they have an existing DFE a press vendor might be stuck on output quality, or maybe they can’t get the throughput in speed that they need. If they’re building a new press they might not know where to quickly source the components they need. Or often they can’t allocate enough engineering resource to the DFE when they need to. Plus it takes a very special skill set to know how to wire it all together.

How do we know all this? Because vendors tell us so. And Fundamentals is our response to this market demand. It offers best of breed software products with an engineering service that allows the press vendor to address their specific applications.

It will grow, of course. We are already looking at a Fundamentals software bundle for industrial inkjet for example. But the good news for press vendors is that we can do all of the above and then some!

Fancy a test drive of the new Harlequin v11 at drupa 2016?

One of the many highlights of our drupa stand will be the new Harlequin RIP. We asked Martin Bailey, CTO at Global Graphics, to tell us more about it. He told us that there are a host of new features to improve inkjet output quality including richer, multi-level screening controls, more controls for variable data printing, and new features for labels and packaging applications. Hear his summary in this video below.

Fancy a test drive? Join us at drupa 2016, Stand 70 B21/C20 in the dip. Simply contact us to book a demonstration.

Stay tuned for more announcements over the next couple of weeks.

Martin Bailey, CTO, Global Graphics Software

Why online print is set to change

Remember in olden times how you sent a file to print on a wing and a prayer? OK, it wasn’t that bad!  But it was unreliable. Figures showed that print-ready file delivery had failure rates of between 30 – 70% and this was a real problem for print service providers with high throughput like magazine houses.

Then PDF/X came along and greatly improved the situation. It was strengthened by additional standardisation efforts from several other bodies including Ghent PDF Workgroup and Altona.

PDF/X worked because it ensured delivery of files ready to high-quality print. And because it dealt with the headache so well, print service providers recommended it.

Fast forward for a moment to today and to the tidal wave that is variable data printing. Most buyers deliver the brief and the dataset to the print service provider (PSP). A full service PSP will offer data mining, graphic design, composition and print. Offering a full service promises higher margins. If you only provide a print service you can expect lower margins, but your model connects better to web-to-print services that are burgeoning. But if you try to “just print” VDP jobs, those that fail will eliminate profit.

I’ve been invited to speak at the Online Print Symposium in Munich (17th – 18th March) about why PDF/VT and Industry 4.0 are set to change online print forever. The truth is that VDP has been hanging around street corners looking for a PDF/X. Well, now it’s found one because that’s what PDF/VT is. It’s been created to deal with every page being different and to give PSPs more control over the workflow.

I would go so far to suggest that print-ready file delivery of graphically rich variable data from outside the print company is unlikely to succeed without it!  And on that bombshell…!

To receive a copy of my presentation email me. Meanwhile take a look at http://www.globalgraphics.com/doPDFVTright

Martin Bailey, CTO, Global Graphics Software

PDF/VT – bringing all the advantages of PDF workflow to the world of variable data printing

Standards for variable data printing (VDP) have come a long way since the first work by CGATS to develop a universal delivery format in the late 1990s. In 2010 the International Standards Organization published the PDF/VT standard, marking the first really effective specification for a reliable, vendor-neutral exchange of variable data jobs, both within and between companies.

A special type of the PDF file format, PDF/VT is specifically used for variable data and transactional printing in a variety of environments, from desktop printing to high volume digital production presses. Built on PDF/X, it therefore brings all the advantages of that standard in enforcing best practices for reproducible and predictable color and appearance to the variable data and transactional print worlds.

The industry is gradually realizing its value to improve quality, competitiveness and productivity, and I’ve been working with the PDF/VT Competence Center, especially with Christoph Oeters (Sofha), Paul Jones (Teclyn bv) and Tim Donahue (technical consultant) to produce a new set of Application Notes highlighting the benefits of using PDF/VT and the workflows that it enables.

The Application Notes explain how to make the highest quality and most efficient PDF/VT files to achieve the required visual appearance of a job, so if you develop software to read and write PDF/VT files, for example in composition tools, RIPs, digital front ends and imposition tools, or if you work on print workflow integration, you’ll find the notes really beneficial. They also show how document part metadata can be applied and leveraged for VDP specific production workflows.

Of course, there are wider benefits to using PDF/VT: The adoption of PDF/VT will allow the industry to finally move towards a reliable, vendor-neutral exchange of variable data jobs, simplifying the process of variable data printing significantly.

The application notes are free to download, pick up your copy here: http://www.pdfa.org/publication/pdfvt-application-notes/.

Let me know what you think of them – feedback is always welcome.

Additional reading:
Do PDF/VT right

Do PDF/VT right by Global Graphics Software

 

PDF/VT for personalized print by the PDF/A Competence Center

Read the press release from the PDF Association (http://www.pdfa.org/2016/01/pdf-association-publishes-pdfvt-application-notes-showcasing-the-benefits-for-variable-data-print-streams/)